The Strategy Paradox: Balancing Efficiency in Management with Visionary Leadership

The Strategy Paradox: Balancing Efficiency in Management with Visionary Leadership

The Strategy Paradox touches on a nuanced aspect of organizational leadership and management. Doing things right—emphasizing efficiency, precision, and adherence to established processes—can cease to be the “right thing” in several scenarios, often due to changes in the external environment, internal dynamics, or when efficiency becomes a substitute for effectiveness.

Here are a few circumstances when doing things right might not necessarily be the right thing:

  1. When the Context Changes: Organizations operate in dynamic environments. What was once a successful strategy or process might become obsolete due to technological advancements, shifts in consumer preferences, regulatory changes, or competitive dynamics. Continuing to perfect and optimize a process that is no longer relevant can be counterproductive.
  2. Innovation and Creativity Are Stifled: Strictly focusing on efficiency and doing things right can sometimes stifle creativity and innovation. Employees too focused on following established procedures might be less likely to propose new ideas or question the status quo, even when change is necessary for long-term success.
  3. Over-Optimization Leads to Fragility: In the pursuit of efficiency, organizations might over-optimize their processes, making them fragile in the face of stress or unexpected events. A system that is too finely tuned to operate under specific conditions might fail when those conditions change, indicating that flexibility and adaptability have been sacrificed for efficiency.
  4. Misalignment with Strategic Goals: Sometimes, operational efficiency in certain areas might not align with the organization’s broader strategic goals. For instance, cutting costs to improve operational efficiency might harm product quality or customer satisfaction, ultimately detracting from the organization’s long-term success and reputation.
  5. Ignoring Ethical Considerations: Doing things right in a way that solely focuses on efficiency or profitability can lead to ethical oversights. If organizational processes or strategies achieve efficiency at the expense of ethical standards, social responsibility, or stakeholder well-being, then doing things right is certainly not right.

Doing Things Right versus Doing the Right Thing

Peter Drucker, widely recognized as the father of modern management, made a statement encapsulating the essence of management and leadership, emphasizing the distinction between efficiency and effectiveness. 

While the exact phrasing can vary across sources, Drucker’s insight is, “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” This concise wisdom captures the fundamental difference between management and leadership roles.

Understanding "Doing the Right Things"

When Drucker refers to “doing the right things,” he’s talking about the importance of setting the correct direction and priorities for the organization. This involves vision, strategy, and the understanding of what will bring long-term success and value to stakeholders. “The right things” are those that align with the organization’s mission, values, and goals, contributing to its purpose and sustainability.

The determination of what is “right” in this context is not unilateral or arbitrary. It involves a deep understanding of the organization’s core mission, the needs and expectations of its stakeholders (including customers, employees, shareholders, and the broader community), and the environmental and social context in which the organization operates. It’s a strategic decision-making process that requires insight, foresight, and a commitment to the organization’s values and ethical principles.

How and When to Start Doing the Right Things

Drucker’s body of work provides several clues on how and when organizations should focus on doing the right things:

  1. Mission-Driven Focus: Drucker emphasized the importance of an organization’s mission as the starting point for determining the right things to do. This involves asking foundational questions about what an organization aims to achieve and why it exists in the first place.

  2. Stakeholder Engagement: Understanding the needs and expectations of stakeholders is crucial for identifying the right things. Drucker advocated actively engaging with stakeholders to ensure that the organization’s direction aligned with their needs and contributed to creating value for them.

  3. Environmental Scanning: Drucker advised organizations to scan their external environment for changes and trends continuously. This enables them to adapt their strategies and operations to meet emerging challenges and opportunities, ensuring they always do the right things in their current and future landscape.

  4. Innovation and Adaptability: Drucker believed in the importance of innovation as a means to do the right things. He argued that organizations should be willing to abandon old practices that are no longer effective and adopt new approaches better suited to the current context.

  5. Continuous Evaluation: According to Drucker, organizations should regularly review and evaluate their activities and strategies to ensure they are still focused on doing the right things. This involves measuring performance, assessing outcomes, and being willing to make adjustments as necessary.

In summary, Peter Drucker’s statement highlights the essential difference between management and leadership—efficiency versus effectiveness—and underscores the importance of strategic direction and ethical decision-making in leadership. 

Determining what is “right” is a complex, multifaceted process that requires a deep understanding of the organization’s purpose, the needs of its stakeholders, and the broader societal context. Drucker’s advice on focusing on the mission, engaging with stakeholders, staying adaptable, and continuously evaluating the organization’s direction provides a timeless guide for leaders to navigate the complexities of the modern business environment.

Navigating the Paradox

To navigate this paradox, leaders and managers must balance efficiency (doing things right) and effectiveness (doing the right things). This involves:

  • Continuous Learning and Adaptation: Staying open to new information, trends, and feedback to adjust strategies and operations as necessary.
  • Encouraging Innovation: Creating a culture that values questioning, experimentation, and learning from failure, recognizing that innovation often requires diverging from established ways of doing things.
  • Strategic Alignment: Regularly reviewing and aligning operational processes with the strategic goals and mission of the organization, ensuring that efficiency does not come at the expense of broader objectives.
  • Ethical Leadership: Making decisions that reflect ethical considerations, social responsibility, and the well-being of all stakeholders, not just short-term efficiency or profitability.

By maintaining a dynamic balance between efficiency and effectiveness, organizations can ensure that they are doing things right and the right things, even as circumstances and priorities evolve.


  • Edwin Korver

    Edwin Korver is a polymath celebrated for his mastery of systems thinking and integral philosophy, particularly in intricate business transformations. His company, CROSS-SILO, embodies his unwavering belief in the interdependence of stakeholders and the pivotal role of value creation in fostering growth, complemented by the power of storytelling to convey that value. Edwin pioneered the RoundMap®, an all-encompassing business framework. He envisions a future where business harmonizes profit with compassion, common sense, and EQuitability, a vision he explores further in his forthcoming book, "Leading from the Whole."

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